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Cowell, J. M., Lee, K., Malcolm-Smith, S., Selcuk, B., Zhou, X., & Decety, J. (2016). The development of generosity and moral cognition across five cultures. Developmental Science. doi: 10.1111/desc.12403 [link to pdf]


Fu, G., Heyman, G. D., Qian, M., Guo, T., & Lee, K. (2016). Young children with a positive reputation to maintain are less likely to cheat. Developmental Science, 19(2), 275-283. doi: 10.1111/desc.12304 [link to pdf]


Fu, G., Heyman, G.D., & Lee, K. (2016). Learning to be unsung heroes: Development of reputation management in two cultures. Child Development, 87(3), 689-699. doi: 10.1111/cdev.12494
[link to pdf]


Fu, G., Luo, Y.C., Heyman, G.D., Wang, B., Cameron, C.A., & Lee, K. (2016). Moral evaluations of lying for one’s own group. Infant and Child Development, 25, 355-370. doi: 10.1002/icd.1941 [link to pdf]


​Zanette, S., Gao, X., Brunet, M., Barlett, M. S., & Lee, K. (2016). Automated decoding of facial expressions reveals marked differences in children when telling antisocial versus prosocial lies. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 150, 165-179. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2016.05.007 [link to pdf]


Decety, J., Cowell, J. M., Lee, K., Mahasneh, R., Malcolm-Smith, S., Selcuk, B., & Zhou, X. (2015). The negative association between religiousness and children's altruism across the world. Current Biology, 25, 2951-2955. [link to pdf]


Ding, X. P., Wellman, H. M., Wang, Y., Fu, G., & Lee, K. (2015). Theory of mind training causes honest young children to lie. Psychological Science, 26(11), 1812-1821. doi: 10.1177/0956797615604628 [link to pdf]

Fu, G., Heyman, G. D., Chen, G., Liu, P., & Lee, K. (2015). Children trust people who lie to benefit others. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 129, 127-139. doi:10.1016/j.jecp.2014.09.006 [link to pdf]


Fu, G., Heyman, G.D., Qian, M., Guo, T., & Lee, K. (2015). Young children with a positive reputation to maintain are less likely to cheat. Developmental Science. doi: 10.1111/desc.12304 [link to pdf]

Heyman, G.D., Fu, G., Lin, J., Qian, M.K., & Lee, K. (2015). Eliciting promises from children reduces cheating. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 139, 242-248. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jecp.2015.04.013 [link to pdf]

Noel, M., Boerner, K. E., Birnie, K. A., Caes, L., Parker, J. A., Chambers, C. T., Fernandez, C. V., & Lee, K. (2015). The acceptability by parents and children of deception in pediatric research. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 36, 75–85. [link to pdf]

Qian, M. K., Heyman, G. D., Quinn, P. C., Messi, F. A., Fu, G., & Lee, K. (2015). Implicit racial biases in preschool children and adults from Asia and Africa. Child Development, 1-12. doi: 10.1111/cdev.12442

Bartlett, M.S., Littlewort, G.C., Frank, M.G., & Lee, K. (2014). Automatic decoding of facial movements reveals deceptive pain expressions. Current Biology. doi:pii: S0960-9822(14)00147-X. 10.1016/j.cub.2014.02.009. [link to pdf]

Chiu Loke, I., Heyman, G. D., Itakura, S., Toriyama, R., & Lee, K. (2014). Japanese and American children's moral evaluations of reporting on transgressions. Developmental Psychology, 50(5), 1520-1531. [link to pdf]

Ding, X. P., Omrin, D. S., Evans, A.D., Fu, G., Chen, G., & Lee, K. (2014). Elementary school children's cheating behavior and its cognitive correlates. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 121, 85-95. [link to pdf]


Ding, X.P., Sai, L., Fu, G., & Lee, K. (2014). Neural correlates of second-order verbal deception: A functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) study. Neuroimage, 15, 505-514. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2013.10.023. [link to pdf]

Dmytro, D., Lo, J., O’Leary, J., Fu, G., Lee, K., & Cameron, C.A. (2014). Development of cultural perspectives on verbal deception in competitive contexts. Journal of Cross-cultural psychology. DOI: 10.1177/0022022114535485 [link to pdf]

Evans, A. D., & Lee, K. (2014). The relation between 8- to 17-year-olds’ judgments of other’s honesty and their own past honest behaviors. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 38(3), 277-281. [link to pdf]

Evans, A. D., Stolzenberg, S. N., Lee, K., & Lyon, T. D. (2014). Young children’s difficulty with indirect speech acts: Implications for questioning child witnesses. Behavioural Sciences and the Law. doi: 10.1002/bsl [link to pdf]

Fu, G., Xiao, W. S., Killen, M., & Lee, K. (2014). Moral judgment and its relation to second-order theory of mind. Developmental Psychology, 50, 2085-2092.

Gordon, H. M., Lyon, T. D., & Lee, K. (2014). Social and cognitive factors associated with children’s secret-keeping for a parent. Child Development, 85(6), 2374-2388. 

Lee, K., Talwar, V., McCarthy, A., Ross, I., Evans, A., & Arruda, C. (2014). Can classic moral stories promote honesty in children? Psychological Science, 1-7. [link to pdf]

Williams, S. M., Talwar, V., Lindsay, R. C. L., Bala, N., & Lee, K. (2014). Is the truth in your words? Distinguishing children’s deceptive and truthful statements. Journal of Criminology,1-9. http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/547519. [link to pdf]

Yi, L., Fan, Y., Li, J., Huang, D., Wang, X., Tan, W., Zou, X., & Lee, K. (2014). Distrust and retaliatory deception in children with autism spectrum disorder. Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, 8, 1741–1755

Zhang, Z., Heyman, G. D., Fu, G., Zhang, D., Yang, Y., & Lee, K. (2014). Children’s belief about self-disclosure to friends regarding academic achievement. Social Development, 1-14. [link to pdf]

Brunet, M. K., Evans, A. D., Talwar, V., Bala, N., Lindsay, R. C. L., & Lee, K. (2013). How children report true and fabricated stressful and non-stressful events. Psychiatry, Psychology and Law. Online Publication. doi: 10.1080/13218719.2012.750896 [link to pdf]

Ding, X. P., Sai, L., Fu, G., Liu, J., & Lee, K. (2013). Neural correlates of second-order verbal deception: A functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) study. NeuroImage, 87, 505-514. [link to pdf]

Ding, X., Gao, X., Fu, G., & Lee, K. (2013). Neural correlates of spontaneous deception: A functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) study. Neuropsychologia, 51(4), 704-712. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2012.12.018 [link to pdf]

Evans, A.D., & Lee, K. (2013). Emergence of lying in very young children. Developmental Psychology, 49(10), 1958-1963. [link to pdf]

Lau, Y. L., Cameron, C. A., Chieh, K. M., O’Leary, J., Fu, G., & Lee, K. (2013). Cultural differences in moral justifications enhance understanding of Chinese and Canadian children’s moral decisions. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 44, 461-477. doi: 10.1177/0022022112453315 [link to pdf]

Lee, K. (2013). Little liars: Development of verbal deception in children. Child Development Perspectives, 7(2), 91-96. doi: 10.111/cdep.12023. [link to pdf]

Li, Q., Heyman, G. D., Xu, F., & Lee, K. (2013). Young children’s use of honesty as a basis for selective trust. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 117, 59-72. [link to pdf]

Li, Y., Li, H., Decety, J., & Lee, K. (2013). Experiencing a natural disaster alters children's altruistic giving. Psychological Science. Online Publication. doi: 10.1177/0956797613479975 [link to pdf]

Saykaly, C., Talwar, V., Lindsay, R. C. L, Bala, N., & Lee, K. (2013). The influence of multiple interviews on the verbal markers of children's deception. Law and Human Behavior, 37, 187-96. doi: 10.1037/lhb0000023

Xu, F., Evans, A. D., Li, C., Li, Q., Heyman, G., & Lee, K. (2013). The role of honesty and benevolence in children's judgements of trustworthiness. International Journal of Behavioural Development, 37(3), 257-265. doi: 10.1177/0165025413479861 [link to pdf]

Yi, L., Pan, J., Fan, Y., Zou, X., Wang, X., & Lee, K. (2013). Children with autism spectrum disorder are more trusting than typically developing children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. Online Publication. doi: 10.1016/j.jecp.2013.05.005 [link to pdf]

Cameron, C. A., Lau, C., Fu, G., & Lee, K. (2012). Development of children’s moral evaluations of modesty and self-promotion in diverse cultural settings. Journal of Moral Education. 41(1), 61–78. doi: 10.1080/03057240.2011.617414 [link to pdf]


Fritzley, H. V., Lindsay, R., & Lee, K. (2012). Young children’s response tendencies toward yes-no questions concerning actions. Child Development, 84(2), 711-725. doi: 10.1111/cdev.12006. [link to pdf]

Fu, F., Evans, A., Xu, F., & Lee, K. (2012). Young children can tell strategic lies after committing a transgression. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 113(1), 147-158. doi: 10.1016/j.jeco.2012.04.003 [link to pdf]


Heyman, G. D., Fu. G., & Lee, K. (2012). Selective skepticism: American and Chinese children's reasoning about evaluative academic feedback. Developmental Psychology, 49(3), 543-555. doi: 10.1037/a0031282

Heyman, G. D., Hsu, A., Fu, G., & Lee, K. (2012). Instrumental lying by parents in the U.S. and China. International Journal of Psychology, 1-9. Online Publication. doi: 10.1080/00207594.2012.746463 [link to pdf]

Kanakogi, Y., Moriguchi, Y., Fu, G., Lee, K., & Itakura, S. (2012). How does executive function contribute to source monitoring in young children? Psychologia, 55, 194-207. [link to pdf] 

Lau, Y. L., Cameron, C. A., Chieh, K. M., O’Leary, J., Fu, G., & Lee, K. (2012). Cultural differences in moral justifications enhance understanding of Chinese and Canadian children’s moral decisions. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. Online publication. doi: 10.1177/0022022112453315 [link to pdf]


Moriguchi, Y., Evans, A., Hiraki, K., Itakura, S., & Lee, K. (2012). Cultural differences in the development of cognitive shifting: East-West comparison. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 111, 156-163. doi: 10.1016/j.jecp.2011.09.001 [link to pdf]

Saykaly, C., Talwar, V., Lindsay, R. C. L., Bala, N.C., Lee, K., Bertrand, M. & Nugent, S.M. (2012). Adults' ability to detect deception of stressful and non-stressful stories of children. Psychology, Crime & Law. doi: 10.1080/1068316X.2012.700311. [link to pdf]

Chiu Loke, I., Evans, A. D., & Lee, K. (2011). The neural correlates of reasoning about prosocial-helping decisions: An event-related brain potentials study. Brain Research, 1369, 140-148. [link to pdf]


Chiu Loke, I., Heyman, G.D., Forgie, J., McCarthy, A., & Lee, K. (2011). Children’s moral evaluations of reporting the transgressions of peers: Age differences in evaluations of tattling. Developmental Psychology, 47, 1757-1762. doi: 10.1037/a0025357 [link to pdf]


Evans, A. D., Brunet, M. K., Talwar, V., Bala, N., Lindsay, R. C. L., & Lee, K. (2011). The effects of repetition on children’s true and false reports. Psychiatry, Psychology and Law. doi: 10.1080/13218719.2011.615808 [link to pdf]


Evans, A.D., & Lee, K. (2011). Verbal deception from late childhood to middle adolescence and its relation to executive functioning skills. Developmental Psychology, 47, 1108-1116. doi: 10.1037/a0023425  [link to pdf]


Evans, A. D., Xu, F., & Lee, K. (2011). When all signs point to you: Lies told in the face of evidence. Developmental Psychology, 47, 39-49. doi: 10.1037/a0020787 [link to pdf]

Fu, G., Heyman, G. D., & Lee, K. (2011). Reasoning about modesty among adolescents and adults in China and the U.S.  Journal of Adolescence, 34, 599–608. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2010.10.003 [link to pdf]


​Heyman, G. D., Itakura, S., & Lee, K. (2011). Japanese and American children's reasoning about accepting credit for prosocial behavior. Social Development, 20, 171-184. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9507.2010.00578.x [link to pdf]

Li, A. S., Kelley, E. A., Evans, A. D.,  & Lee, K. (2011). Exploring the ability to deceive in children with autism spectrum disorders. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 41, 185-195. doi: 10.1007/s10803-010-1045-4 [link to pdf]

Ma, F., Xu, F., Heyman, G. D., & Lee, K. (2011). Chinese children’s evaluations of white lies: Weighing the consequences for recipients. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 108, 308-321. doi: 10.1016/j.jecp.2010.08.015 [link to pdf]


Talwar, V., Carlson, S., & Lee, K. (2011). Effects of a punitive environment on children's executive functioning: A natural experiment. Social Development, 20, 805-824. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9507.2011.00617 [link to pdf]


Talwar, V., & Lee, K. (2011). A punitive environment fosters children's dishonesty: A natural experiment. Child Development, 82, 1751-1758. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2011.01663.x  [link to pdf]

Zhan, J-Y., Wilding, J., Cornish, K., Shao, J., Xie, C-H., Wang, Y-X., Lee, K., Karmiloff-Smith, A., & Zhao Z-Y. (2011). Charting the developmental trajectories of attention and executive function in Chinese school-aged children. Child Neuropsychology, 17, 82-95. doi: 10.1080/09297049.2010.525500 [link to pdf]

Bala, N., Lee, K., Lindsay, R. C. L., & Talwar, V. (2010). Hearing the voices of children in Canada’s criminal justice system: Recognizing capacity and facilitating testimony. Canadian Bar Review, 22(1), 21-45.[link to pdf]


Bala, N., Lee, K., Lindsay, R. C. L., & Talwar, V. (2010). The competency of children to testify: Psychological research informing Canadian law reform. International Journal of Children’s Rights, 18, 53–77. doi.org/10.1163/157181809X458544 [link to pdf]​


Evans, A. D., & Lee, K. (2010). Promising to tell the truth makes 8- to 16-year-olds more honest. Behavioral Sciences & the Law, 28, 801-811. doi: 10.1002/bsl.960 [link to pdf]

Fu, G., Brunet, M. K., Lv, Y., Ding, X., Heyman, G. D., Cameron, C. A., & Lee, K. (2010). Chinese Children’s moral evaluation of lies and truths- roles of context and parental individualism-collectivism tendencies. Infant and Child Development, 19, 498-515. doi: 10.1002/icd.680 [link to pdf]


Sweet, M.A., Heyman, G. D., Fu, G., & Lee, K. (2010). Are there limits to collectivism? Culture and children's reasoning about lying to conceal a group transgression. Infant and Child Development, 19, 422-442. doi: 10.1002/icd.669 [link to pdf]

Xu, F., Bao, X., Fu, G., Talwar, V., & Lee, K. (2010). Lying and truth-telling in children: From concept to action. Child Development, 81, 581–596. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2009.01417.x [link to pdf]


Boseovski, J. J., Shallwani, S., & Lee, K. (2009). ‘It’s all good’: Children’s personality attributions after repeated success and failure in peer and computer interactions. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 27, 783–797. doi: 10.1348/026151008X377839 [link to pdf]


Eskritt, M., & Lee, K. (2009). Children’s informational reliance during inconsistent communication: The public–private distinction. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 104, 214–228. [link to pdf]


Evans, A. D., Lee, K., & Lyon, T. D. (2009).  Complex questions asked by defense lawyers but not prosecutors predicts convictions in child abuse trials. Law and Human Behavior, 33, 258-264. doi: 10.1007/s10979-008-9148-6 [link to pdf]

Harada, T., Itakura, S., Xu, F., Lee, K., Nakashita, S., Saito, D. N., & Sadato, N. (2009). Neural correlates of the judgment of lying: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Neuroscience Research, 63(1), 24-34. [link to pdf]

Heyman, G.D., Sweet, M.A., & Lee, K. (2009). Children’s reasoning about lie-telling and truth-telling in politeness contexts. Social Development, 18, 728-746. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9507.2008.00495.x [link to pdf]

Heyman, G.D., Luua, D.H., & Lee, K. (2009). Parenting by lying. Journal of Moral Education, 38, 353–369. doi: 10.1080/03057240903101630 [link to pdf]

Heyman, G. D., Fu, G., Sweet, M. A., Lee, K. (2009). Children’s reasoning about evaluative feedback. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 27, 875-890. doi: 10.1348/026151008X390870 [link to pdf]


Leach, A-M., Lindsay, R.C.L., Koehler, R., Beaudry, J.L., Bala, N.C., Lee, K., & Talwar, V. (2009). The reliability of lie detection performance. Law and Human Behavior, 33, 96-109. doi: 10.1007/s10979-008-9137-9[link to pdf]


Littlewort, G., Bartlett, M., & Lee, K. (2009). Automatic coding of Facial Expressions displayed during Posed and Genuine Pain.  Image and Vision Computing, 27(12) p. 1741-1844.


​McCarthy, A., & Lee, K. (2009). Children’s knowledge of deceptive gaze cues and its relation to their actual lying behavior. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 103(2), 117-134. [link to pdf]


Xu, F., Luo, Y. C., Fu, G., & Lee, K. (2009). Children’s and adults’ conceptualization and evaluation of lying and truth-telling. Infant & Child Development, 18, 307-322. doi: 10.1002/icd.631 [link to pdf]


Boseovski, J.J., & Lee, K. (2008). Seeing the world through rose-colored glasses? Neglect of consensus information in young children’s personality judgments. Social Development, 17, 399-416. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9507.2007.00431.x [link to pdf]


Eskritt, M., Whalen, J., & Lee, K. (2008). Preschoolers can recognize violations of the Gricean Maxims. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 26, 435-443. doi: 10.1348/026151007X253260 [link to pdf]

Fu, G., Evans, A.D., Wang, L., & Lee, K. (2008). Lying in the name of the collective good: A developmental study. Developmental Science, 11, 495-503. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2008.00695.x [link to pdf]

Heyman, G.D., Fu, G., & Lee, K. (2008). Reasoning about the disclosure of success and failure to friends among children in the United States and China. Developmental Psychology, 44, 908-918. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.44.4.908 [link to pdf]


Moriguchi, Y., Lee, K., & Itakura, S. (2007). Social transmission of disinhibition in young children. Developmental Science, 10, 481-491. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2007.00601.x [link to pdf]

Talwar, V., & Lee, K. (2008). Social and cognitive correlates of children’s lying behavior. Child Development, 79, 866–881. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2008.01164.x [link to pdf]


Fu, G., & Lee, K. (2007). Social grooming in kindergarten: The emergence of flattery behavior. Developmental Science, 10, 255-265. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2007.00583.x[link to pdf]

Fu, G., Xu, F., Cameron, C.A., & Lee, K. (2007). Cross-cultural differences in children's choices, categorizations and evaluations of truths and lies. Developmental Psychology, 43, 278-293. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.43.2.278 [link to pdf]


Heyman, G.D., Fu, G., & Lee, K. (2007). Evaluating claims people make about themselves: The development of skepticism. Child Development, 78, 367-375. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2007.01003.x [link to pdf]


Heyman, G., Fu, G., & Lee, K. (2007). Children's skepticism in two cultures. Child Development, 78, 367-375.


Talwar, V., Gordon, H. M., & Lee, K. (2007). Lying in elementary school years: Verbal deception and its relation to second-order belief understanding. Developmental Psychology, 43, 804-810. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.43.3.804 [link to pdf]

Talwar, V., Murphy, S.M., & Lee, K. (2007). White lie-telling in children for politeness purposes. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 31, 1-11. doi: 10.1177/0165025406073530 [link to pdf]


Sabbagh, M.A., Xu, F., Carlson, S.M., Moses, L.J., & Lee, K. (2006). The development of executive functioning and theory-of-mind: A comparison of Chinese and U.S. preschoolers. Psychological Science, 17, 74-81. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2005.01667.x [link to pdf]

Bala, N., Ramakrishnan, K., Lindsay, R., & Lee, K. (2005). Judicial assessment of the credibility of child witnesses. Alberta Law Review, 42(4), 1-23. Retrieved from http://heinonline.org/HOL/Page?handle=hein.journals/alblr42&div=43&g_sent=1&collection=journals


Freire, A., Eskritt, M., & Lee, K. (2004). Are eyes windows to a deceiver's soul: Children's use of another's eye gaze cues in a deceptive situation. Developmental Psychology, 40, 1093-1104. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.40.6.1093 [link to pdf]


Freire, A., Lee., K., Williamson, K.S., Stuart, S.J.E., & Lindsay, R.C.L. (2004). Lineup identification by children: Effects of clothing bias. Law and Human Behavior, 28, 339-354. doi: 10.1023/B:LAHU.0000029142.00834.e3 [link to pdf]

Leach, A-M., Talwar, V., Lee, K., Bala, N., & Lindsay, R.C.L. (2004). "Intuitive lie detection" of childrens deception by law enforcement officials and university students. Law and Human Behavior, 28, 661-685. doi: 10.1007/s10979-004-0793-0 [link to pdf]

Symons, L.A., Lee. K., Cedrone, C.C., & Nishimura, M. (2004). What are you looking at? Acuity for triadic eye gaze. Journal of General Psychology, 131(4), 451-469. [link to pdf]

Talwar, V., Lee, K., Bala, N., & Lindsay, R.C.L. (2004). Children's lie-telling to conceal a parent's transgression: Legal implications. Law and Human Behavior, 28, 411-435. doi: 10.1023/B:LAHU.0000039333.51399.f6 [link to pdf]

Fritzley, V.H., & Lee, K. (2003). Do young children always say yes to yes/no questions? A metadevelopmental study of the affirmation bias. Child Development, 74(5), 1297-1313. doi: 10.1111/1467-8624.00608 [link to pdf]

Eskritt, M., & Lee, K. (2003). Do actions speak louder than words? Preschool children's use of the verbal-nonverbal consistency principle during inconsistent communications. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 27, 25-41. doi: 10.1023/A:1023614123081 [link to pdf]

Kisilevsky, B.S., Hains, S.M.J., Lee, K., Xie, X., Huang, H., Ye, H.H., Zhang K., & Wang, Z. (2003). Effects of experience on fetal voice recognition. Psychological Science, 14, 220-224. doi: 10.1111/1467-9280.02435 [link to pdf]

Eskritt, M., & Lee, K. (2002). “Remember where you last saw that card”: Children’s production of external symbols as a memory aid. Developmental Psychology, 38, 254-266. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.38.2.254 [link to pdf]


Lee, K.​, Cameron, C.A., Doucette, J., & Talwar, V. (2002). Phantoms and fabrications: Young children’s detection of implausible lies. Child Development, 73, 1688-1702. doi: 10.1111/1467-8624.t01-1-00499 [link to pdf]


Talwar, V., & Lee, K. (2002). Development of lying to conceal a transgression: Children's control of expressive behavior during verbal deception. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 26, 436-444. doi: 10.1080/01650250143000373 [link to pdf]

Talwar, V., & Lee, K. (2002). Emergence of white lie telling in children between 3 and 7 years of age. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 48, 160-181.[link to pdf]

Talwar, V., Lee, K., Bala, N., & Lindsay, R.C.L. (2002). Children's conceptual knowledge of lying and its relation to their actual behaviors: Implications for court competence examinations. Law and Human Behavior, 26, 395-415. doi: 10.1023/A:1016379104959 [link to pdf]

Xu, F., Homer, B., & Lee, K. (2002). The effects of literacy on Chinese children's early word awareness. Psychological Science (China), 25, 672-675. doi: CNKI:SUN:XLKX.0.2002-06-008 

Bala, N., Lee, K., & Lindsay, R. (2001). R. v. M: Failing to appreciate the testimonial capacity of children. Criminal Reports, 40, 93-106.


Eskritt, M., Lee, K., & Donald, M. (2001). The influence of symbolic literacy on memory: Testing Plato’s hypothesis. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 55, 39-50. doi: 10.1037/h0087351 [link to pdf] 


Fu, G., Lee, K., Cameron, C.A., & Xu, F. (2001). Chinese and Canadian adults’ categorization and evaluation of lie- and truth-telling about pro- and anti-social behaviors. Journal of Cross Cultural Psychology, 32, 740-747. [link to pdf]

Bala, N., Lee, K., Lindsay, R., & Talwar, V. (2000). A legal & psychological critique of the present approach to the assessment of the competence of child witnesses. Osgood Hall Law Journal, 38, 409 - 643. Retrieved from http://heinonline.org/HOL/Page?handle=hein.journals/ohlj38&div=24&g_sent=1&collection=journals


Lee, K., & Cameron, C.A. (2000). Extracting truthful information from lies: Emergence of the expression-representation distinction. Merrill Palmer Quarterly-Journal of Developmental Psychology, 46, 1-20. [link to pdf]

Sapp, F., Lee, K., & Muir, D. (2000). Three-year-olds’ difficulty with the appearance-reality distinction: Is it real or apparent? Developmental Psychology, 36, 547-560. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.36.5.547 [link to pdf]


Cameron, C.A., & Lee, K. (1999). Emergent use of English grammatical morphemes by Chinese-speaking children. International Review of Applied Linguistics, 37, 43-58. [link to pdf]


Lee, K., & Eskritt, M. (1999). Beyond the Gricean Maxims: Conversational awareness as a multifaceted domain of knowledge (Commentary). Developmental Science, 2, 27-28. doi: 10.1111/1467-7687.00049

Lee, K., Olson, D., & Torrance, N. (1999). Chinese children’s understanding of false beliefs: The role of language. Journal of Child Language, 26, 1-21. doi: 10.1017/S0305000998003626 [link to pdf]


Schuman, J., Bala, N., & Lee, K. (1999). Developmentally appropriate questions for child witnesses. Queen’s Law Journal, 25, 251 - 304. [link to pdf]


Lee, K., Eskritt, M., Symons, L.A., & Muir, D. (1998). Children’s use of triadic eye gaze information for "mind reading". Developmental Psychology, 34, 525-539. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.34.3.525 [link to pdf]

Lee, K., Karmiloff-Smith, A., Cameron, C.A., & Dodsworth, P. (1998). Notational adaptation in children. Canadian Journal of Behavioural Science/Revue canadienne des Sciences du comportement, 30, 159-171. doi: 10.1037/h0087059

Cameron, C.A., & Lee, K. (1997). The development of children's telephone communication. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 18, 55-70. doi: 10.1016/S0193-3973(97)90014-9 [link to pdf]


Lee, K., Cameron, C.A., Xu, F., Fu, G., & Board, J. (1997). Chinese and Canadian children’s evaluations of lying and truth-telling: Similarities and differences in the context of pro- and anti-social behaviours. Child Development, 68, 924-934. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.1997.tb01971.x [link to pdf]

Lee, K., & Ross, H.J. (1997). The concept of lying in adolescents and young adults: Testing Sweetser’s folkioristic model. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly - Jounral of Developmental Psychology, 43, 255-270. [link to pdf]

Lindsay, R.C.L., Craig, W., Lee, K., Pozzulo, J., & Corber, S. (1997). Simultaneous lineups, sequential lineups, and showups: Eyewitness identification decisions of adults and children. Law and Human Behavior, 21, 391-404. doi: 10.1023/A:1024807202926 [link to pdf]

Lee, K., & Karmiloff-Smith, A. (1996). The development of cognitive constraints on notations. Archieves de Psychologie, 64, 3-26. Retrieved from http://psycnet.apa.org/index.cfm?fa=search.displayRecord&uid=1996-03503-001 

Books and Book Chapters

​Lee, K., & Evans, A. (in press). Development of social pragmatics of deceptive communication. In T. Matsui (Eds.), Pragmatics and theory of mind. New York: John Benjamins.​


Evans, A.D., & Lee, K. (2013). Morality, deception, and lying. In M. Killen, & J. Smetana (Eds.), Handbook of Moral Development, 2nd Edition (pp. 361-384). New York: Psychology Press. 


Lee, K. & Evans, A.D. (2013). Becoming a moral relativist: Children’s moral conceptions of honesty and dishonesty in different social contexts. In M. R. Banaji & S. A. Gelman (Eds.), Navigating the social world: What infants, children, and other species can teach us (pp.361-366). New York: Oxford University Press.​


Lee, K. & Talwar, V. (2013). Child and lying: A century of scientific research. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.


Talwar, V., Lee, K., & Lindsay, R. (2011). In S. Anand (Ed.), Paradoxes of children's rights. Irwin Law.

Talwar, V., Lindsay, R., & Lee, K. (2011). The child witness project: Examining the assessment of competence of child witnesses. In S. Anand (Eds.), Children and the law: Essays in honour of Professor Nicholas Bala (pp.77-92). Toronto: Irwin Law Inc.

Bartlett, M., Littlewort, G., Vural, E., Lee, K., Cetin, M., Ercil, A., & Movellan, J. (2008). Data mining spontaneous facial behavior with automatic expression coding. In A. Esposito, N.G. Burbakis, N. Avouris, & I. Hatzilygenroudis (Eds.), Verbal and nonverbal features of human-human and human-machine interaction. Berlin: Springer.


Talwar, V., & Lee, K. (2008). Little liars: How children learn to do deceptive things with words? In S. Itakura & K. Fujita (Eds.), Origins of the social mind: Evolutionary and developmental views. Japan: Springer.

Lee, K., & Freire, A. (2003). Cognition in adolescence. In A. Slater & J. G. Bremner (Eds.), Developmental Psychology (pp.359-387). Oxford: Blackwell.


​Lee, K., & Karmiloff-Smith, A. (2001). Micro- and macro-development: Assumptions, promises, & constraints. In N. Granott & J. Parziale (Eds.), Microdevelopmental clues: Transition processes in development and learning (pp.243-265). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Lee, K. (2000). Childhood cognitive development: The essential readings. Malden, MA, US.: Blackwell Publisher.

Lee, K. (2000). The development of lying: How children do deceptive things with words. In J. W. Astington (Eds.), Minds in the making (pp.177-196). Oxford: Blackwell.

Lee, K. (1999, Ed.). Blackwell's reader in cognitive development. Oxford, UK.: Blackwell Publisher

Lee, K., & Homer, B. (1998). Children as folk psychologists: The developing understanding of the mind. In A. Slater and D. Muir (Eds.), Blackwell’s reader in developmental psychology (228-252). Oxford, UK.: Blackwell.


Cameron, C.A., & Lee, K. (1997). Bridging the gap between home and school with voice-mail technology. Journal of Educational Research, 90, 182-190. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/10.2307/27542089 [link to pdf]

Lee, K., Karmiloff-Smith, A. (1996). The development of external symbol systems: The child as a notator. In R. Gelman, & T. Kit-Fong (Eds.), Perceptual and cognitive development. Handbook of perception and cognition (2nd ed.) (pp. 185-211). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.








​Slater, A., Lewis, M., Anzures, G., Lee, K. (Eds.). (2011). Introduction to Infant Development: Canadian Edition. Toronto: Oxford University Press.


Lee, K. (1999, Ed.). Blackwell’s reader in cognitive development. Oxford, UK.: Blackwell.

Lee, K., & Chen, L. (1996). The development of metacognitive knowledge of basic motor skill: Walking. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 157, 361-375. doi: 10.1080/00221325.1996.9914872 


Cameron, C.A., Lee, K., Webster, S., Munro, K., Hunt, A.K., & Linton, M.J. (1995). Text cohesion in children's narrative writing. Applied Psycholinguistics, 16, 257-269. doi: 10.1017/S0142716400007293

Lee, K., Cameron, C.A., Linton, M.J., & Hunt, A.K. (1994). Referential place-holding in Chinese children's acquisition of English articles. Applied Psycholinguistics, 15, 29-43. doi: 10.1017/S0142716400006962 


Yu, G., Chen, X., & Lee, K. (1989).  Psychology of youth.  Henan, China: Henan People's Press. (In Chinese).













Social Perception 
​Publications

Dr. Kang Lee Lab

Other Publications

Symbolic and Language Processing Publications

​​​​​​Creel, S. C., Weng, M., Fu, G., Heyman, G. D., & Lee, K. (2017). Speaking a tone language enhances musical pitch perception in 3-5-year-olds. Developmental Science, 1-7. doi: 10.1111/desc.12503


Richoz, A. R., Quinn, P. C., Hillairet de Boisferon, A., Berger, C., Loevenbruck, H., Lewkowicz, D. J., Lee, K., Dole, M., Caldara, R., & Pascalis, O. (2017). Audio-visual perception of gender by infants emerges earlier for adult-directed speech. Plos One, 12(1), 1-15. doi:10.1371/ journal.pone.0169325


Xiao, N. G., Quinn, P. C., Liu, S., Ge, L., Pascalis, O., & Lee, K. (2017). Older but not younger infants associate own-race faces with happy music and other-race faces with sad music. Developmental Science, 1-10. doi: 10.1111/desc.12537


Damon, F., Quinn, P. C., Heron-Delaney, M., Lee, K., & Pascalis, O. (2016). Development of category formation for faces differing by age in 9- to 12-month-olds: An effect of experience with infant faces. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 34(4), 582-597. doi: 10.1111/bjdp.12152


Heron-Delaney, M., Damon, F., Quinn, P. C., Méary, D., Xiao, N. G., Lee, K., & Pascalis, O. (2016). An adult face bias in infants that is modulated by face race. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 1-7. doi: 10.1177/0165025416651735


Yi, L., Quinn, P. C., Fan, Y., Huang, D., Feng, C., Li, J., & Lee, K. (2016). Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder scan own-race faces differently than other-race faces. Journal 

Zhao, J., Liu, J., Jiang, X., Zhou, G., Chen, G., Ding, X. P., Fu, G., & Lee, K. (2016). Linking resting-state networks in the prefrontal cortex to executive function: A functional near infrared spectroscopy study. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 10(452), 1-17. doi: 10.3389/fnins.2016.00452


Bayet, L., Pascalis, O., Quinn, P. C., Lee, K., Gentaz, E., & Tanaka, J. W. (2015). Angry facial expressions bias gender categorization in children and adults: behavioral and computational evidence. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 1-15. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00346 [link to pdf]


Bayet, L., Quinn, P.C., Tanaka, J.W., Lee, K., Gentaz, E., & Pascalis, O. (2015). Face gender influences the looking preference for smiling expressions in 3.5-month-old human infants. PLoS One.

Damon, F., Bayet, L., Quinn, P. C., Hillairet de Boisferon, A., Meary, D., Dupierrix, E., Lee, K., & Pascalis, O. (2015). Can human eyes prevent perceptual narrowing for monkey faces in human infants? Developmental Psychobiology. doi: 10.1002/dev.21319 [link to pdf]


Fu, G., Dong, Y., Quinn, P.C., Xiao, W.S., Wang, Q., Chen, G., Pascalis, O., & Lee, K. (2015). Effects of visual expertise on a novel eye-size illusion: Implications for holistic face processing. Vision Research, 113, 104-110. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.visres.2015.05.011


Hillairet de Boisferon, A., Dupierrix, E., Quinn, P.C., Lœvenbruck, H., Lewkowicz, D.J., Lee, K., & Pascalis, O. (2015). Perception of multisensory gender coherence in 6 and 9-month-old infants. Infancy, 20(6), 661-674. doi: 10.1111/infa.12088

Li, Y., Quinn, P. C., Feng, C., Li, J., Ding, H., & Lee, K. (2015). Do individuals with autism spectrum disorder process own- and other-race faces differently? Vision Research, 107, 124-132. doi: 10.1016/j.visres.2014.11.021

Liu, S., Xiao, N. G., Quinn, P. C., Zhu, D., Ge, L., Pascalis, O., & Lee, K. (2015). Asian infants show preference for own-race but not other-race female faces: The role of infant caregiving arrangements. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 593. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00593 [link to pdf]


Liu, S., Xiao, W.S., Xiao, N.G., Quinn, P.C., Zhang, Y., Chen, H., Ge, L., Pascalis, O., & Lee, K. (2015). Development of visual preference for own- versus other-race faces in infancy. Developmental Psychology. doi: 10.1037/a0038835.

Quinn, P. C., Lee, K., Pascalis, O., & Tanaka, J. W. (2015). Narrowing in categorical responding to other-race face classes by infants. Developmental Science, 19(3), 362-371. doi: 10.1111/desc.12301 [link to pdf]

Xiao, N.G., Quinn, P.C., Liu, S., Ge, L., Pascalis, O., & Lee, K. (2015). Eye tracking reveals a crucial role for facial motion in recognition of races by infants. Developmental Psychology, 51(6) 733-757.

Xie, W., Richards, J. E., Lei, D., Lee, K., & Gong, Q. (2015). Comparison of the brain development trajectory between Chinese and U.S. children and adolescents. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, 249. doi: 10.3389/fnsys.2014.00249


Xie, W., Richards, J.E., Lei, D., Zhu, H., Lee, K., & Gong, Q. (2015). The construction of MRI brain / head templates for Chinese children from 7 - 16 years of age. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 15, 94-105. doi: 10.1016/j.dcn.2015.08.008

Wang, Z., Quinn, P. C., Tanaka, J. W., Yu, X., Sun, Y. P., Liu, J., Pascalis, O., Ge, L., & Lee, K.  (2015). An other-race effect for configural and featural processing of faces: Upper and lower face regions play different roles. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 559. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2015.00559 [link to pdf]

Bartlett, M. S., Littlewort, G. C., Frank, M. G., & Lee, K. (2014). Automatic decoding of facial movements reveals deceptive pain expressions. Current Biology, 24, 738-743. 

Dupierrix, E., Hillairet de Boisferon, A., Méary, D., Lee, K., Quinn, P. C., Di Giorgio, E., Simion, F., Tomonaga, M., & Pascalis, O. (2014). Preference for human eyes in human infants. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 123, 138-146.

Hillairet de Boisferon, A., Uttley, L., Quinn, P. C., Lee, K., & Pascalis, O. (2014). Female face preference in 4-month-olds: The importance of hairline. Science Direct, 37(4), 676-681. doi:10.1016/j.infbeh.2014.08.009

Hu, C., Wang, Q., Fu, G., Quinn, P. C., & Lee, K. (2014). Children and adults scan faces of own and other races differently. Vision Research, 102, 1-10. doi: 10.1016/j.visres.2014.05.010

Liu, J., Li, J., Feng, L., Li, L., Tian, J., Lee, K. (2014). Seeing Jesus in toast: Neural and behavioral correlates of face pareidolia. Cortex, 31, 60-77. doi: 10.1016/j.cortex.2014.01.013.

Liu, J., Wang, Z., Feng, L., Li, J., Tian, J., & Lee, K. (2014). Neural trade-offs between recognizing and categorizing own- and other-race faces. Cerebral Cortex, 1-13. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bhu025

Luo, L., Li, H., & Lee, K. (2014). Adults with siblings like children's faces more than those without. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology. DOI: 10.1016/j.jecp.2014.09.003

Macchi Cassia, V., Luo, L., Pisacane, A., Li, H., Lee, K. (2014). How race and age experiences shape young children’s face processing abilities. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 120, 87–101.

Pascalis, O., Loevenbruck, H., Quinn, P. C., Kandel, S., Tanaka, J. W., & Lee, K. (2014). On the links among face processing, language processing, and narrowing during development. Child Development Perspectives, 8(2), 65-70. doi: 10.1111/cdep.12064

Quinn, P.C., Lee, K., Pascalis, O., & Tanaka, J.W. (2014). Evidence for a perceptual-to-social transition in infant categorization of other-race faces. Developmental Science, 14(10), 1-10. doi: 10.1111.desc.12301


Short, L. A., Lee, K., Fu, G., & Mondloch, C. J. (2014).  Category-specific face prototypes are emerging, but not yet mature in 5-year-old children. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 126, 161–177.

Sun, Y., Wang, Z., Quinn, P., Xiaoyang, Y., Tanaka, J., Pascalis, O., & Lee, K. (2014). The other-race effect of face processing: Upper and lower parts play different roles. Journal of Vision, 14(10). doi: 10.1167/14.10.1276

Tanaka, J. W., Quinn, P. C., Xu, B., Maynard, K., Huxtable, N., Lee, K., & Pascalis, O. (2014). The effects of information type (features vs. configuration) and location (eyes vs. mouth) on the development of face perception. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 124, 36-49.

Xiao, S.W., Fu, G., Quinn, P.C., Qin, J., Tanaka, J., Pascalis, O., Miao, J., & Lee, K. (2014). Individuation training on other-race faces reduces preschoolers’ implicit racial bias: A link between perceptual and social representation of faces in children. Developmental Science. DOI: 10.1111/desc.12241.

Xiao, N. G., Perrotta, S., Quinn, P. C., Wang, Z., Sun, Y. P., & Lee, K. (2014). On the facilitative effects of face motion on face recognition and its development. Frontiers in Psychology, 5, 1-16. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.00633

Xiao, N. G., Quinn, P. C., Wheeler, A., Pascalis, O., & Lee, K. (2014). Natural, but not artificial, facial movements elicit the left visual field bias in infant face scanning. Neuropsychologia, 62, 175-183. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2014.07.017

Xiao, W. S., Fu, G., Quinn, P. C., Qin, J., Tanaka, J. W., Pascalis, O., & Lee, K. (2014). Individuation training with other-race faces reduces preschoolers’ implicit racial bias: A link between perceptual and social representation of faces in children. Developmental Science, 1-9. doi: 10.1111/desc.12241

Xiao, W. S., Fu, G., Quinn, P. C., Sun, Y., Xiao, N. G., Wang, Q., Chen, G., Pascalis, O., Damon, F., & Lee, K. (2014). The eye-size illusion: Psychophysical characteristics, generality, and relation to holistic face processing. Perception, 43, 265-274. doi: 10.1068/p7647


Xiao, W. S., Quinn, P. C., Pascalis, O., & Lee, K. (2014). Own- and other-race face scanning in infants: Implications for perceptual narrowing. Developmental Psychobiology, 56(2), 262-273. doi: 10.1002/dev.21196 [link to pdf]

Anzures, G., Kelly, D.J., Pascalis, O., Quinn, P.C., Slater, A.M., de Viviés, X., & Lee, K. (2013). Own- and other-race face identity recognition in children: The effects of pose and feature composition. Developmental Psychology, June 3, 2013. Online Publication. doi: 10.1037/a0033166 [link to pdf]


Anzures, G., Quinn, P. C., Pascalis, O., Slater, A. M., & Lee, K. (2013). Development of own-race biases. Visual Cognition, 21, 1165.

Anzures, G., Quinn, P.C., Pascalis, O., Slater, A.M., Tanaka, J.W., & Lee, K. (2013). Developmental origins of the other-race effect. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 22(3), 173-178. [link to pdf]

Ding, X.P., Fu, G., & Lee, K. (2013). Neural correlates of own- and other-race face recognition in children: A functional near-infrared spectroscopy study. NeuroImage, July 25, 2013. Online Publication. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2013.07.051 [link to pdf] 

Fu, G., Mondloch, C., Ding, X.P., Short, L., Sun, L., & Lee, K. (2013). The neural correlates of the face attractiveness aftereffect: A functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) Study. NeuroImage. [link to pdf]

Haist, F., Adamo, M., Han, J., Lee, K., & Stiles, J. (2013). The functional architecture for face-processing expertise: FMRI evidence of the developmental trajectory of the core and the extended face systems. Neuropsychologia, August 12, 2013. Online Publication. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2013.08.005 [link to pdf]

Heron-Delaney, M., Quinn, P.C., Lee, K., Slater, A.M., Pascalis, O. (2013). Nine-month-old infants prefer unattractive bodies over attractive bodies. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 115, 30–41. [link to pdf]

Hu, X., Evans, A., Wu, H., Lee, K., Fu, G. (2013). An interfering dot-probe task facilitates the detection of mock crime memory in a reaction time (RT)-based concealed information test. Acta Psychologica, 142(2),  278–285. doi: 10.1016/j.actpsy.2012.12.006 [link to pdf]


Lee, K., Wang, Q., Fu, G., Xiao, N., Hu, C., & Quinn, P.C. (2013). Categorizing racially ambiguous faces as own- versus other-race influence show those faces are scanned. Journal of Vision, 13(9), 985. doi: 10.1167/13.9.985

Li, S., Lee, K., Zhao, J., Yang, Z., He, S., & Weng, X. (2013). Neural competition as a developmental process: Early hemispheric specialization for word processing delays specialization for face processing. Neuropsychologia, 51, 950-959. [link to pdf]


Liu, J., Feng, L., Li, L., Wei, W., Tian, J., & Lee, K. (2013). The neural correlates of covert recognition of familiar faces. Journal of Vision, 13(9), 408. doi: 10.1167/13/9/408 

Liu, J., Wang, M., Shi, X., Feng, L., Li, L., Thacker, J.M., Tian, J., Shi, D., & Lee, K. (2013). Neural correlates of covert face processing: fMRI evidence from a prosopagnosic patient. Cerebral Cortex, February 28, 2013. Online Publication. doi: 10.1093/cercor/bht059 [link to pdf]

Quinn, P.C., Tanaka, J. W., Lee, K., Pascalis, O., & Slater, A. M. (2013). Are faces special to infants? An investigation of configural and featural processing for the upper and lower regions of houses in 3- to 7-month-olds. Visual Cognition, 21(1), 23-37. doi: 10.1080/13506285.2013.764370 [link to pdf]

Sun, Y-H., Quinn, P.C., Wang, Z., Shi, H., Zhong, M., Jin, H., Ge, L., Pascalis, O., Tanaka, J., & Lee, K. (2013). Face contour is crucial to the fat face illusion. Perception, 42, 488-494. doi: 10.1068/p7439

Uttley, L., Hillairet de Boisferon, A., Dupierrix, E., Lee, K., Quinn, P. C., Slater, A. M., & Pascalis, O. (2013). Six-month-old infants match other-race faces with a non-native language. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 37(2), 84-89. doi: 10.1177/0165025412467583 [link to pdf]

Xiao, N., Quinn, P., Ge, L., & Lee, K. (2013). Facial motion facilitates featural, not holistic, processing in children, adolescents, and adults. Journal of Vision, 13(9), 96. doi: 10.1167/13.9.96

Xiao, N. G., Quinn, P.C., Ge, L., & Lee, K. (2013). Elastic facial movement influences part-based but not holistic processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance, February 11, 2013. Online Publication. [link to pdf]

Xiao, N.G., Quinn, P.C., Ge, L., & Lee, K. (2013). Elastic facial motion facilitates featural, but not holistic, face processing. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception & Performance. Online Publication. doi: 10.1037/a0031631.

Yi, L., Feng, C., Quinn, P. C., Ding, H., Li, J., Liu, Y., & Lee, K. (2013). Do individuals with and without autism spectrum disorder scan faces differently? A new multi-method look at an existing controversy. Autism Research, 7, 72-83. [link to pdf]

Yi, L., Liu, Y., Quinn, P., Fan, Y., Feng, C., Mao, G., & Lee, K. (2013). Abnormality in face scanning by children wtih Autism Spectrum Disorder is limited to the eye region: Evidence from a multi-method analyses of eye-tracking. Journal of Vision, 13(9), 842. doi: 10.1167/13.9.842 [link to pdf]

Anzures, G., Wheeler, A., Quinn, P.C., Pascalis, O., Slater, A.M., Heron-Delaney, M., Tanaka, J., & Lee, K. (2012). Brief daily exposures to Asian females reverses perceptual narrowing for Asian faces in Caucasian infants. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 101(2), 124-136. [link to pdf]


Fu, G., Hu, C.S., Wang, Q., Quinn, P.C., & Lee, K. (2012). Adults scan own- and other-race faces differently. PLoS ONE 7(6): e37688. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0037688 [link to pdf]


Feng, L., Liu, J., Huber, D., Rieth, C., Li, L., Tian, J., & Lee, K. (2012). The neural correlates of illusory face perception: An fMRI study. Journal of Vision, 12(1182). doi: 10.1167/12.9.1182

Liu, S., Anzures, G., Ge, L., Quinn, P.C., Pascalis, O., Slater, A., Tanaka, J., & Lee, K. (2012). Development of recognition of face parts from unfamiliar faces. Infant and Child Development, 22, 165-179. doi:10.1002/icd.1781 [link to pdf] 


Liu, J., Feng, L., Li, L., Tian, J., & Lee, K. (2012). The neural correlates of own- and other-race face recognition and categorization: A fMRI study. Journal of Vision, 12(1187). doi: 10.1167/12.9.1187


Moriguchi, Y., Evans, A., Hiraki, K., Itakura, S., & Lee, K. (2012). Cultural differences in the development of cognitive shifting: East-West comparison. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 111, 156-163. doi:10.1016/j.jecp.2011.09.001 [link to pdf]


Short, L.A., Mondloch, C.J., McCormick, C.M., Carré, J.M., Ma, R., Fu, G, & Lee, K. (2012). Detection of Propensity for Aggression based on Facial Structure Irrespective of Face Race. Evolution & Human Behavior, 33(2), 121-129. doi: 10.1016/j.evolhumbehav.2011.07.002 [link to pdf]

Sun, Y-H., Ge., L., Quinn, P.C., Wang, Z., Xiao, N. G., Pascalis, O., Tanaka, J., & Lee, K. (2012). A new “fat face” illusion. Perception, 41, 117-120. [link to pdf]


Xiao, N. G., Quinn, P.C., Ge, L., & Lee, K. (2012). Rigid facial motion influences featural, but not holistic, face processing. Vision Research, 57(15), 26-34. doi: 10.1016/j.visres.2012.01.015. [link to pdf]


Xiao, W.S., Xiao, N., Quinn, P.C., Gizelle, A., & Lee, K. (2012). Development of face scanning for own- and other-race faces in infancy. International Journal of Behavioral Development, December 4, 2012. Online Publication. doi: 10.1177/0165025412467584 [link to pdf]

Xu, F., Wu, D., Toriyama, R., Ma, F., Itakura, S., Lee, K. (2012). Similarities and differences in Chinese and Caucasian adults' use of facial cues for trustworthiness judgments. PLoS One, 7(4): e34859. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0034859. [link to pdf]

Anzures, G., Ge, L., Wang, Z., Itakura, S., & Lee, K. (2011). An own-age bias in young adults' facial age judgments. Psychologia, 54(3), 166-174. doi: 10.2117/psysoc.2011.166 [link to pdf]


Anzures, G., Pacalis, O., Quinn, P. C., Slater, A., & Lee, K. (2011). Minimizing skin color differences does not eliminate the own-race recognition advantage in infants. Infancy, 16, 640-654. doi: 10.1111/j.1532-7078.2010.00066.x [link to pdf]


Feng, L., Liu, J., Wang, Z., Li, J., Li, L., Ge, L., Tian, J., & Lee, K. (2011). The other face of the other-race effect: An fMRI investigation of the other-race face categorization advantage. Neuropsychologia, 49, 3739–3749. [link to pdf]

Haist, F., Adamo, M., Han, J., Lee, K., & Stiles, J. (2011). On the development of human face processing abilities: Evidence for hyperactivation of the extended face system in children. Journal of Vision, 11(11): 461. doi: 10.1167/11.11.461

Heron-Delaney, M., Anzures, G., Herbert, J. S., Quinn, P.C., Slater, A., Tanaka, J., Lee, K., & Pascalis, O. (2011). Perceptual training prevents the emergence of the other race effect during infancy. PLoS One, 6: e19858. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0019858 [link to pdf]

Liu, J., Li, J., Rieth, C., Huber, D. E., Tian, J., & Lee, K. (2011). A dynamic causal modeling analysis of the effective connectivities underlying top-down letter processing. Neuropsychologia, 49, 1177-1186. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropsychologia.2011.01.011 [link to pdf]


Luo, L. Z., Li, H., & Lee, K. (2011). Are children's faces really more appealing than those of adults? Testing the baby schema hypothesis beyond infancy. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 110, 115-124. doi:10.1016/j.jecp.2011.04.002 [link to pdf]

Pascalis, O., de Martin de Vivies, X., Anzures, G., Quinn, P. C., Slater, A. M., Tanaka, J. W., & Lee, K. (2011). Development of face processing. WIREs Cognitive Science, 2, 666-675. doi: 10.1002/wcs.128 [link to pdf]

Quinn, P. C., Anzures, G., Izard, C. E., Lee, K., Pascalis, O., Slater, A. M., & Tanaka, J. W. (2011). Looking across domains to understand infant representation of emotion. Emotion Review, 3, 197-206. doi: 10.1177/1754073910387941 [link to pdf]


Rieth, C.A., Lee, K., Lui, J., Tian, J., & Huber, D.E. (2011). Faces in the mist: Illusory face and letter detection. i-Perception, 2, 458-476. doi: 10.1068/i0421 [link to pdf]

Wheeler, A., Anzures, G., Quinn, P.C., Pascalis, O., Omrin, D.S., & Lee, K. (2011). Caucasian infants scan own- and other-race faces differently. PLoS One, 6: e18621. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0018621 [link to pdf]


Anzures, G., Ge, L., Wang, Z., Itakura, S., & Lee, K. (2010) Culture shapes efficiency of facial age judgments. PLoS ONE 5(7): e11679. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0011679 [link to pdf]

Anzures, G., Quinn, P. C., Pascalis, O., Slater, A. M., Lee, K. (2010). Categorization, categorical perception, and asymmetry in infants’ representation of face race. Developmental Science, 13(4), 553-564. doi:10.1111/j.1467-7687.2009.00900.x [link to pdf]

Haist, F., Lee, K., & Stiles, J. (2010). Individuating faces and common objects produces equal responses in putative face processing areas in the ventral occipitotemporal cortex, Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 4, 181. doi: 10.3389/fnhum.2010.00181. [link to pdf]

Li, J., Liu, J., Liang, J., Zhang, H. Zhao, J., Rieth, C.A., Huber, D., Li, W., Shi, G., Ai, L., Tian, J., & Lee, K. (2010). Effective connectivities of cortical regions for top-down face processing: A dynamic causal modeling study. Brain Research, 1340, 40-51.


Liu, J., Li, J., Zhang, H., Rieth, C.A., David E. Huber, D.E., Li, W., Lee, K., & Tian, J. (2010). Neural correlates of top-down letter processing. Neuropsychologia, 48, 636–641.


Liu, S., Quinn, P.C., Wheeler, A., Xiao, N., Ge, L., Pascalis, O., Slater, A., & Lee, K. (2010). Similarity and difference in the processing of same- and other-race faces as revealed by eye-tracking in 4- to 9-month-old Infants. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 108, 180-189.

Pallet, P., Link, S., & Lee, K. (2010). New ‘‘golden” ratios for facial beauty. Vision Research, 50, 149-154.

Quinn, P.C., Conforto, A., Lee, K., O’Toole, A.J., Pascalis, O., & Slater, A.M. (2010). Infant preference for individual women’s faces extends to girl prototype faces. Infant and Child Development, 33, 357-360.


Slater, A., Quinn, P.C., Kelly, D.J., Lee, K., Longmore, C. A., McDonald, P.R., & Pascalis, O. (2010). The shaping of the face space in early infancy: Becoming a native face processor.  Perspectives in Child Development, 4, 205–211. doi: 10.1111/j.1750-8606.2010.00147.x [link to pdf]

Eskritt, M., & Lee, K. (2009). Children's informational reliance during inconsistent communication: The public - private distinction. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 104, 214-228. [link to pdf]

Ge, L., Zhang, H., Wang, Z., Pascalis, O., Quinn, P.C., Kelly, D., Slater, A., Tian, J., & Lee, K. (2009). Two faces of the other-race effect: Recognition and categorization of Caucasian and Chinese faces. Perception, 38, 1199-1210. doi:10.1068/p6136 

Kelly, D.J., Liu, S., Lee, K., Quinn, P.C., Slater, A.M., Pascalis, O., & Ge, L. (2009). Development of the Other-Race Effect during Infancy: Evidence towards universality? Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 104, 105-114. doi: 10.1016/j.jecp.2009.01.006 [link to pdf]

Kisilevsky, B.S., Hains, S.M.J., Brown, C.A., Lee, C.T., Cowperthwaite, B., Stutzmana, S.S., Swansburga, M.L., Lee, K., Xie, X. Huang, H, Ye, H., Zhang, K, & Wang, Z. (2009). Fetal sensitivity to properties of maternal speech and language. Infant Behavior & Development, 32, 59–71.

Li, J., Liu, J. G., Liang, J.M., Zhang, H.C., Zhao, J.Z., Huber, D.E., Rieth, C.A., Lee, K., Tian, J., & Shi, G. (2009). A distributed neural system for top-down face processing. Neuroscience Letters, 451, 6-10. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2008.12.039 [link to pdf]

Link, S., & Lee, K. (2009). Psychophysics of face processing. In M. Elliot, S. Antonijevic, S. Berthaud, C. Martyn, B. Bargery, & H. Schmidt (Eds.), Fechner Day 2009 (pages 7-12). Gallimh: Ollsoil na hEireann.

Liu, J. G., Tian, J., Li, J., Gong, Q.Y., & Lee, K. (2009). Similarities in neural activations of face and Chinese character discrimination. Neuroreport, 20, 273-277. doi: 10.1097/WNR.0b013e32832000f8 [link to pdf]

Zhang, H., Tian, J., Liu, J. G., Li, J., & Lee, K. (2009). Intrinsically organized network for face perception during the resting state. Neuroscience Letters, 454, 1-5. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2009.02.054 [link to pdf]

Ge, L., Anzures, G., Zhe, W., Kelly, D., Quinn, P.C., Pascalis, O., Slater, A., & Lee, K. (2008). An inner-face advantage in children’s recognition of familiar peers. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 101, 124-136.


McCleery, J.P., Zhang, L., Ge, L., Wang, Z., Christiansen, E.M., Lee, K., & Cottrell, G.W. (2008). The roles of visual expertise and visual input in the face inversion effect:  Behavioral and neurocomputational evidence. Vision Research, 48, 703–715.

Quinn, P. C., Kelly, D. J., Lee, K., Pascalis, O., & Slater, A.M. (2008). Preference for attractive faces in human infants extends beyond conspecifics. Developmental Science, 11, 76-83. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2007.00647.x [link to pdf]

Quinn, P. C., Uttley, L., Lee, K., Gibson, A., Smith, M., Slater, A.M., & Pascalis, O. (2008). Infant preference for female faces occurs for same- but not other-race faces. Journal of Neuropsychology (Special Issue on Face Processing), 2, 15-26. doi: 10.1348/174866407X231029 [link to pdf]

Zhang, H., Liu, J., Huber, D.E., Rieth, C., Tian, J., & Lee, K. (2008). Detecting faces in pure noise images: An fMRI study on top-down perception. Neuroreport, 19, 229-233.

Kelly, D.J., Quinn, P.C., Slater, A.M., Lee, K., Ge, L., & Pascalis, O. (2007). The other-race effect develops during infancy: Evidence of perceptual narrowing. Psychological Science, 18, 1084-1089. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.02029.x [link to pdf]


Quinn, P.C., Lee, K., Pascalis, O., & Slater, A.M. (2007). In support of an expert-novice difference in the representation of humans versus non-human animals by infants: Generalization from persons to cats occurs only with upright whole images. Cognition, Brain, & Behavior (Special Issue on the Development of Categorization), 11, 679-694. [link to pdf]

Kelly, D.J., Liu, S., Ge, L., Quinn, P.C., Slater, A.M., Lee, K., Liu, Q., & Pascalis, O. (2007). Cross-race preferences for same-race faces extend beyond the African versus Caucasian contrast in 3-month-old infants. Infancy, 11, 87-95. doi: 10.1207/s15327078in1101_4 [link to pdf]

Boseovski, J.J., & Lee, K. (2006). Children's Use of Frequency Information for Trait Categorization and Behavioral Prediction. Developmental Psychology, 42, 500-513. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.42.3.500 [link to pdf]


Ge, L., Wang, Z., McCleery, J.P., & Lee, K. (2006). Activation of face expertise and the inversion effect. Psychological Science, 17, 12-16. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2005.01658.x [link to pdf]

Ge, L., Wang, Z., McCleery, J.P., & Lee, K. (2006). The effect of face expertise activation on the inversion effect. Psychological Science, 17, 12-16.

McCarthy, A., Lee, K., Itakura, S., & Muir, D.W. (2006). Cultural display rules drive eye gaze during thinking. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 37, 717-722. doi: 10.1177/0022022106292079 [link to pdf]

Minato, T., Shimada, M., Itakura, S., Lee, K., & Ishiguro, H. (2006). Evaluating the human likeness of an android by comparing gaze behaviours elicited by the android and a person. Advanced Robotics, 20, 1147-1163. doi: 10.1163/156855306778522505 [link to pdf]

Kelly, D.J., Quinn, P.C., Slater, A. M., Lee, K., Gibson, A., Smith, M., Ge, L., & Pascalis, O. (2005). FAST-TRACK REPORT: Three-month-olds, but not newborns, prefer own-race faces. Developmental Science, 8, F31-F36. [link to pdf]


Freire, A., Eskritt, M., & Lee, K. (2004). Are eyes windows to a deceiver's soul? Children's use of another's eye gaze cues in a deceptive situation. Developmental Psychology, 40, 1093-1104. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.40.6.1093 [link to pdf]

Freire, A., Lee, K., Williamson, K.S., Stuart, S.J.E., & Lindsay, R.C.L. (2004). Lineup identification by children: Effects of clothing bias. Law and Human Behavior, 28, 339-354.

Symons, L.A., Lee. K., Cedrone, C.C., & Nishimura, M. (2004). What are you looking at?  Acuity for triadic eye gaze. Journal of General Psychology, 131, 451-469.

Kisilevsky, B.S., Hains, S.M.J., Lee, K., Xie, X., Huang, H., Ye, H.H., Zhang K., & Wang, Z. (2003). Effects of experience on fetal voice recognition. Psychological Science, 14, 220-224.

Muir, D., & Lee, K. (2003). The still-face effect: Methodological issues and new applications. Infancy, 4, 483-491. doi: 10.1207/S15327078IN0404_03 [link to pdf]

Ge, L., Luo, J. , Nishimura, M., & Lee, K. (2003). Lasting impression of Chairman Mao: Hyper-fidelity of familiar face memory. Perception, 32, 601-614. doi:10.1068/p5022 [link to pdf]

Freire, A. & Lee, K. (2001). Face recognition in 4 to 7 year-olds: Processing of configural, featural, and paraphernalia information. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 80, 347-371. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022096501926396 [link to pdf]

Freire, A., Lee, K., & Symons, L.A. (2000). The face inversion effect as a deficit in the encoding of configural information: Direct evidence. Perception, 29, 159-170. doi: 10.1068/p3012 [link to pdf]

Lee, K., & Freire, A. (1999). Effects of face configuration change on shape perception: A new illusion. Perception, 28, 1217-1226. [link to pdf]

Kisilevski, B., Haines, S., Lee, K., Muir, D., Xu, F., Fu, G., Zhao, Z., & Yang, M. (1998). The still-face effect in Chinese and Canadian 3- to 6-month-old infants. Developmental Psychology, 34, 629-639.

Lee, K., Eskritt, M., Symons, L.A., & Muir, D. (1998). Children's use of triadic eye gaze for mind reading. Developmental Psychology, 34, 525-539. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.34.3.525 [link to pdf]

Lindsay, R.C.L., Craig, W., Lee, K., Pozzulo, J., Corber, S., Rombough, V., & Smyth, L.  (1997). Eyewitness identification procedures when the witness is a child. Law and Human Behavior, 20, 391-404.


Lindsay, R.C.L., Craig, W., Lee, K., Pozzulo, J., & Corber, S. (1997). Simultaneous lineups, sequential lineups, and showups: Eyewitness identification decisions of adults and children. Law and Human Behavior, 21, 391-404. doi: 10.1023/A:1024807202926

Books and Book Chapters

Lee, K., Quinn, P.C., Pascalis, O., & Slater, A. (2013). Development of face processing ability in childhood. In Zelazo, Ph. (Ed.), Oxford handbook of developmental psychology. Oxford University Press.

Lee, K., Quinn, P.C., Pascalis, O., & Slater, A. (2013). Development of face processing abilities. In Zelazo, Ph. (Ed.), Oxford handbook of developmental psychology, Vol. 2 (pp.338-370). Oxford University Press. 

Quinn, P. C., Anzures, G., Lee, K., Pascalis, O., Slater, A. M., & Tanaka, J. W. (2013). On the developmental origins of differential responding to social category information. In M. R. Banaji & S. A. Gelman (Eds.), Navigating the social world: What infants, children, and other species can teach us (pp. 286-291). New York: Oxford University Press.

Lee, K., Anzures, G., & Freire, A. (2011). Cognitive development in adolescence. In A. Slater & G. Bremner (Eds.), An introduction to developmental psychology, 2nd edition (pp. 359-387). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.

Lee, K., Anzures, G., Quinn, P.C., Pascalis, O., & Slater, A. (2011). Development of face processing expertise. In A. J. Calder, G. Rhodes, M. H. Johnson, & J.V. Haxby (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of face perception (pp. 753-778). New York: Oxford University Press.

Slater, A.M., Riddell, P., Quinn, P.C., Pascalis, O., Lee, K., & Kelly, D.J. (2010). Visual perception. In G. Bremner & T. Wachs (Eds.), The Wiley-Blackwell handbook of infant development: Vol. 1. Basic Research (2nd ed., pp. 40-80). Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.

Quinn, P.C., Lee, K., Pascalis, O., & Slater, A. (2010). Perceptual Development: Face Perception. In B. Goldstein (Ed.), Encyclopedia of perception (Vol. 2, pp.742-745). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

Bartlett, M., Littlewort, G., Vural, E., Lee, K., Cetin, M., Ercil, A., & Movellan, J. (2008). Data mining spontaneous facial behavior with automatic expression coding. In A. Esposito, N.G. Burbakis, N. Avouris, & I. Hatzilygenroudis (Eds.), Verbal and nonverbal features of human-human and human-machine interaction (pp.1-20). Berlin: Springer.

Eskritt, M., & Lee, K. (2007). Young children’s processing of eye gaze information for “mind-reading” purposes. In R. Flom, K. Lee, & D. Muir (Eds.), Ontogeny of gaze processing (pp.243-262). Lawrence Earlbuam.

Flom, R., Lee, K. & Muir, D. (Eds.). (2007). Ontogeny of gaze processing: Its development and significance. Lawrence Earlbuam.

Flom, R., Lee, K., & Muir, D. (2006). Gaze-Following: Its Development and Significance. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

Muir, D., Lee, K., Hains, C., & Hains, S. (2005). Infant perception and production of emotions during face-to-face interactions with live and 'virtual' adults. In J. Nadel & M.  Muir (Eds), Emotional development: Recent research advances (pp. 207-233). New York, NY, US: Oxford University Press.

Freire, A. & Lee. K. (2004). Person recognition by young children: Configural, featural, and paraphernalia processing. In O. Pascalis & A. Slater (Eds.), The development of face processing in infancy and early childhood: current perspectives (pp.191-205). New York: Nova Science Publishers.








​​Heather Fritzley, V.H., Okanda, M., Itakura, S. & Lee, K. (2012). Children's responses to yes-no questions. In M. Siegal and L. Surian (Eds.), Access to language and cognitive development (pp.83-99). Oxford: Oxford University Press. 


​Eskritt, M., & Lee, K. (2007). The impact of notation on cognition & its development: Theoretical perspectives & empirical evidence. In L. Tolchinsky & E Teubal (Eds.), The development of notational representations (pp.233-256). Sense Publishers.​​


​Fritzley, V.H., & Lee, K. (2003). Do young children always say yes to yes/no questions? A metadevelopmental study of the affirmation bias. Child Development, 74, 1297-1313.


Eskritt, M., & Lee, K. (2002). ‘Remember where you last saw that card’: Children’s production of external symbols as a memory aid.  Developmental Psychology, 38, 254-266.


Eskrrit, M., Lee, K., & Donald, M. (2001). The influence of symbolic literacy on memory: Testing Plato’s hypothesis. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 55, 39-50.


Cameron, C.A., & Lee, K. (1999).  Emergent use of English grammatical morphemes by Chinese-speaking children.  International Review of Applied Linguistics, 36, 43-58.


Cameron, C.A., & Lee, K.  (1997). The development of children’s telephone communication. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 18, 55-70.


Cameron, C.A., & Lee, K.  (1997). Bridging home and school with voice-mail technology.  Journal of Educational Research, 90, 182-190.


Lee, K., & Karmiloff-Smith, A.  (1996). The development of cognitive constraints on notations.  Archieves de Psychologie, 64, 3-25.


Lee, K., & Karmiloff-Smith, A. (1996).  Notational development: The use of symbols.  In E. C. Carterette & M.P. Friedman (Eds.), Handbook of perception, Vol. 13. R. Gelman & T. Au, (Volume Eds.), Perceptual and cognitive development (pp.185-211).  New York: Academic Press.










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