Dr. Kang Lee's Development Lab

DECEPTION PUBLICATIONS 2009-2000


Boseovski, J. J., Shallwani, S., & Lee, K. (2009). ‘It’s all good’: Children’s personality attributions after repeated success and failure in peer and computer interactions. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 27, 783–797. doi: 10.1348/026151008X377839 [link to pdf]


Eskritt, M., & Lee, K. (2009). Children’s informational reliance during inconsistent communication: The public–private distinction. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 104, 214–228. [link to pdf]


Evans, A. D., Lee, K., & Lyon, T. D. (2009).  Complex questions asked by defense lawyers but not prosecutors predicts convictions in child abuse trials. Law and Human Behavior, 33, 258-264. doi: 10.1007/s10979-008-9148-6 [link to pdf]

Harada, T., Itakura, S., Xu, F., Lee, K., Nakashita, S., Saito, D. N., & Sadato, N. (2009). Neural correlates of the judgment of lying: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Neuroscience Research, 63(1), 24-34. 
[link to pdf]

Heyman, G.D., Sweet, M.A., & Lee, K. (2009). Children’s reasoning about lie-telling and truth-telling in politeness contexts. Social Development, 18, 728-746. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9507.2008.00495.x [
link to pdf]

Heyman, G.D., Luua, D.H., & Lee, K. (2009). Parenting by lying. Journal of Moral Education, 38, 353–369. doi: 10.1080/03057240903101630 [
link to pdf]

Heyman, G. D., Fu, G., Sweet, M. A., Lee, K. (2009). Children’s reasoning about evaluative feedback. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 27, 875-890. doi: 10.1348/026151008X390870 [link to pdf]


Leach, A-M., Lindsay, R.C.L., Koehler, R., Beaudry, J.L., Bala, N.C., Lee, K., & Talwar, V. (2009). The reliability of lie detection performance. Law and Human Behavior, 33, 96-109. doi: 10.1007/s10979-008-9137-9 [link to pdf]


Littlewort, G., Bartlett, M., & Lee, K. (2009). Automatic coding of Facial Expressions displayed during Posed and Genuine Pain.  Image and Vision Computing, 27(12) p. 1741-1844. [link to pdf]


​McCarthy, A., & Lee, K. (2009). Children’s knowledge of deceptive gaze cues and its relation to their actual lying behavior. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 103(2), 117-134. [
link to pdf]


Xu, F., Luo, Y. C., Fu, G., & Lee, K. (2009). Children’s and adults’ conceptualization and evaluation of lying and truth-telling. Infant & Child Development, 18, 307-322. doi: 10.1002/icd.631 [
link to pdf]


Boseovski, J.J., & Lee, K. (2008). Seeing the world through rose-colored glasses? Neglect of consensus information in young children’s personality judgments. Social Development, 17, 399-416. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9507.2007.00431.x [link to pdf]


Eskritt, M., Whalen, J., & Lee, K. (2008). Preschoolers can recognize violations of the Gricean Maxims. British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 26, 435-443. doi: 10.1348/026151007X253260 [link to pdf]

Fu, G., Evans, A.D., Wang, L., & Lee, K. (2008). Lying in the name of the collective good: A developmental study. Developmental Science, 11, 495-503. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2008.00695.x [
link to pdf]

Heyman, G.D., Fu, G., & Lee, K. (2008). Reasoning about the disclosure of success and failure to friends among children in the United States and China. Developmental Psychology, 44, 908-918. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.44.4.908 [
link to pdf]


Moriguchi, Y., Lee, K., & Itakura, S. (2007). Social transmission of disinhibition in young children. Developmental Science, 10, 481-491. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2007.00601.x [link to pdf]

Talwar, V., & Lee, K. (2008). Social and cognitive correlates of children’s lying behavior. Child Development, 79, 866–881. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2008.01164.x [
link to pdf]


Fu, G., & Lee, K. (2007). Social grooming in kindergarten: The emergence of flattery behavior. Developmental Science, 10, 255-265. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2007.00583.x [link to pdf]

Fu, G., Xu, F., Cameron, C.A., & Lee, K. (2007). Cross-cultural differences in children's choices, categorizations and evaluations of truths and lies. Developmental Psychology, 43, 278-293. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.43.2.278 [
link to pdf]


Heyman, G.D., Fu, G., & Lee, K. (2007). Evaluating claims people make about themselves: The development of skepticism. Child Development, 78, 367-375. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.2007.01003.x 
[link to pdf]


Talwar, V., Gordon, H. M., & Lee, K. (2007). Lying in elementary school years: Verbal deception and its relation to second-order belief understanding. Developmental Psychology, 43, 804-810. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.43.3.804 [link to pdf]

Talwar, V., Murphy, S.M., & Lee, K. (2007). White lie-telling in children for politeness purposes. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 31, 1-11. doi: 10.1177/0165025406073530 [
link to pdf]


Sabbagh, M.A., Xu, F., Carlson, S.M., Moses, L.J., & Lee, K. (2006). The development of executive functioning and theory-of-mind: A comparison of Chinese and U.S. preschoolers. Psychological Science, 17, 74-81. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2005.01667.x [link to pdf]

Bala, N., Ramakrishnan, K., Lindsay, R., & Lee, K. (2005). Judicial assessment of the credibility of child witnesses. Alberta Law Review, 42(4), 1-23.
[link to pdf]


Freire, A., Eskritt, M., & Lee, K. (2004). Are eyes windows to a deceiver's soul: Children's use of another's eye gaze cues in a deceptive situation. Developmental Psychology, 40, 1093-1104. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.40.6.1093 [link to pdf]


Freire, A., Lee., K., Williamson, K.S., Stuart, S.J.E., & Lindsay, R.C.L. (2004). Lineup identification by children: Effects of clothing bias. Law and Human Behavior, 28, 339-354. doi: 10.1023/B:LAHU.0000029142.00834.e3 [link to pdf]

Leach, A-M., Talwar, V., Lee, K., Bala, N., & Lindsay, R.C.L. (2004). "Intuitive lie detection" of childrens deception by law enforcement officials and university students. Law and Human Behavior, 28, 661-685. doi: 10.1007/s10979-004-0793-0 [
link to pdf]

Symons, L.A., Lee. K., Cedrone, C.C., & Nishimura, M. (2004). What are you looking at? Acuity for triadic eye gaze. Journal of General Psychology, 131(4), 451-469. [
link to pdf]

Talwar, V., Lee, K., Bala, N., & Lindsay, R.C.L. (2004). Children's lie-telling to conceal a parent's transgression: Legal implications. Law and Human Behavior, 28, 411-435. doi: 10.1023/B:LAHU.0000039333.51399.f6 
[link to pdf]

Fritzley, V.H., & Lee, K. (2003). Do young children always say yes to yes/no questions? A metadevelopmental study of the affirmation bias. Child Development, 74(5), 1297-1313. doi: 10.1111/1467-8624.00608 
[link to pdf]

Eskritt, M., & Lee, K. (2003). Do actions speak louder than words? Preschool children's use of the verbal-nonverbal consistency principle during inconsistent communications. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 27, 25-41. doi: 10.1023/A:1023614123081 
[link to pdf]

Kisilevsky, B.S., Hains, S.M.J., Lee, K., Xie, X., Huang, H., Ye, H.H., Zhang K., & Wang, Z. (2003). Effects of experience on fetal voice recognition. Psychological Science, 14, 220-224. doi: 10.1111/1467-9280.02435 [
link to pdf]

Eskritt, M., & Lee, K. (2002). “Remember where you last saw that card”: Children’s production of external symbols as a memory aid. Developmental Psychology, 38, 254-266. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.38.2.254 
[link to pdf]


Lee, K.​, Cameron, C.A., Doucette, J., & Talwar, V. (2002). Phantoms and fabrications: Young children’s detection of implausible lies. Child Development, 73, 1688-1702. doi: 10.1111/1467-8624.t01-1-00499 [link to pdf]


Talwar, V., & Lee, K. (2002). Development of lying to conceal a transgression: Children's control of expressive behavior during verbal deception. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 26, 436-444. doi: 10.1080/01650250143000373 [link to pdf]

Talwar, V., & Lee, K. (2002). Emergence of white lie telling in children between 3 and 7 years of age. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly, 48, 160-181.
[link to pdf]

Talwar, V., Lee, K., Bala, N., & Lindsay, R.C.L. (2002). Children's conceptual knowledge of lying and its relation to their actual behaviors: Implications for court competence examinations. Law and Human Behavior, 26, 395-415. doi: 10.1023/A:1016379104959 [
link to pdf]

Xu, F., Homer, B., & Lee, K. (2002). The effects of literacy on Chinese children's early word awareness. Psychological Science (China), 25, 672-675. doi: CNKI:SUN:XLKX.0.2002-06-008
[link to pdf]

Bala, N., Lee, K., & Lindsay, R. (2001). R. v. M: Failing to appreciate the testimonial capacity of children. Criminal Reports, 40, 93-106.


Eskritt, M., Lee, K., & Donald, M. (2001). The influence of symbolic literacy on memory: Testing Plato’s hypothesis. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology, 55, 39-50. doi: 10.1037/h0087351 [link to pdf


Fu, G., Lee, K., Cameron, C.A., & Xu, F. (2001). Chinese and Canadian adults’ categorization and evaluation of lie- and truth-telling about pro- and anti-social behaviors. Journal of Cross Cultural Psychology, 32, 740-747. [link to pdf]

Bala, N., Lee, K., Lindsay, R., & Talwar, V. (2000). A legal & psychological critique of the present approach to the assessment of the competence of child witnesses. Osgood Hall Law Journal, 38, 409 - 643. [link to pdf]


Lee, K., & Cameron, C.A. (2000). Extracting truthful information from lies: Emergence of the expression-representation distinction. Merrill Palmer Quarterly-Journal of Developmental Psychology, 46, 1-20. [
link to pdf]

Sapp, F., Lee, K., & Muir, D. (2000). Three-year-olds’ difficulty with the appearance-reality distinction: Is it real or apparent? Developmental Psychology, 36, 547-560. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.36.5.547 [
link to pdf]

Books and Book Chapters


Bartlett, M., Littlewort, G., Vural, E., Lee, K., Cetin, M., Ercil, A., & Movellan, J. (2008). Data mining spontaneous facial behavior with automatic expression coding. In A. Esposito, N.G. Burbakis, N. Avouris, & I. Hatzilygenroudis (Eds.), Verbal and nonverbal features of human-human and human-machine interaction. Berlin: Springer.


Talwar, V., & Lee, K. (2008). Little liars: How children learn to do deceptive things with words? In S. Itakura & K. Fujita (Eds.), Origins of the social mind: Evolutionary and developmental views. Japan: Springer.

Lee, K., & Freire, A. (2003). Cognition in adolescence. In A. Slater & J. G. Bremner (Eds.), Developmental Psychology (pp.359-387). Oxford: Blackwell.


​Lee, K., & Karmiloff-Smith, A. (2001). Micro- and macro-development: Assumptions, promises, & constraints. In N. Granott & J. Parziale (Eds.), Microdevelopmental clues: Transition processes in development and learning (pp.243-265). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Lee, K. (2000). Childhood cognitive development: The essential readings. Malden, MA, US.: Blackwell Publisher.

Lee, K. (2000). The development of lying: How children do deceptive things with words. In J. W. Astington (Eds.), Minds in the making (pp.177-196). Oxford: Blackwell.

​​​​​​​​​​​​FACE PROCESSING PUBLICATIONS 2009-2000


​​Eskritt, M., & Lee, K. (2009). Children's informational reliance during inconsistent communication: The public - private distinction. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 104, 214-228. [link to pdf]

Ge, L., Zhang, H., Wang, Z., Pascalis, O., Quinn, P.C., Kelly, D., Slater, A., Tian, J., & Lee, K. (2009). Two faces of the other-race effect: Recognition and categorization of Caucasian and Chinese faces. Perception, 38, 1199-1210. doi:10.1068/p6136 
[link to pdf]

Kelly, D.J., Liu, S., Lee, K., Quinn, P.C., Slater, A.M., Pascalis, O., & Ge, L. (2009). Development of the Other-Race Effect during Infancy: Evidence towards universality? Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 104, 105-114. doi: 10.1016/j.jecp.2009.01.006 
[link to pdf]

Kisilevsky, B.S., Hains, S.M.J., Brown, C.A., Lee, C.T., Cowperthwaite, B., Stutzmana, S.S., Swansburga, M.L., Lee, K., Xie, X. Huang, H, Ye, H., Zhang, K, & Wang, Z. (2009). Fetal sensitivity to properties of maternal speech and language. Infant Behavior & Development, 32, 59–71.
[link to pdf]

Li, J., Liu, J. G., Liang, J.M., Zhang, H.C., Zhao, J.Z., Huber, D.E., Rieth, C.A., Lee, K., Tian, J., & Shi, G. (2009). A distributed neural system for top-down face processing. Neuroscience Letters, 451, 6-10. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2008.12.039 
[link to pdf]

Liu, J. G., Tian, J., Li, J., Gong, Q.Y., & Lee, K. (2009). Similarities in neural activations of face and Chinese character discrimination. Neuroreport, 20, 273-277. doi: 10.1097/WNR.0b013e32832000f8 
[link to pdf]

Zhang, H., Tian, J., Liu, J. G., Li, J., & Lee, K. (2009). Intrinsically organized network for face perception during the resting state. Neuroscience Letters, 454, 1-5. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2009.02.054 
[link to pdf]

Ge, L., Anzures, G., Zhe, W., Kelly, D., Quinn, P.C., Pascalis, O., Slater, A., & Lee, K. (2008). An inner-face advantage in children’s recognition of familiar peers. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 101, 124-136.
[link to pdf]

McCleery, J.P., Zhang, L., Ge, L., Wang, Z., Christiansen, E.M., Lee, K., & Cottrell, G.W. (2008). The roles of visual expertise and visual input in the face inversion effect:  Behavioral and neurocomputational evidence. Vision Research, 48, 703–715.
[link to pdf]

Quinn, P. C., Kelly, D. J., Lee, K., Pascalis, O., & Slater, A.M. (2008). Preference for attractive faces in human infants extends beyond conspecifics. Developmental Science, 11, 76-83. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-7687.2007.00647.x 
[link to pdf]

Quinn, P. C., Uttley, L., Lee, K., Gibson, A., Smith, M., Slater, A.M., & Pascalis, O. (2008). Infant preference for female faces occurs for same- but not other-race faces. Journal of Neuropsychology (Special Issue on Face Processing), 2, 15-26. doi: 10.1348/174866407X231029 
[link to pdf]

Zhang, H., Liu, J., Huber, D.E., Rieth, C., Tian, J., & Lee, K. (2008). Detecting faces in pure noise images: An fMRI study on top-down perception. Neuroreport, 19, 229-233.
[link to pdf]

Kelly, D.J., Quinn, P.C., Slater, A.M., Lee, K., Ge, L., & Pascalis, O. (2007). The other-race effect develops during infancy: Evidence of perceptual narrowing. Psychological Science, 18, 1084-1089. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2007.02029.x 
[link to pdf]

Quinn, P.C., Lee, K., Pascalis, O., & Slater, A.M. (2007). In support of an expert-novice difference in the representation of humans versus non-human animals by infants: Generalization from persons to cats occurs only with upright whole images. Cognition, Brain, & Behavior (Special Issue on the Development of Categorization), 11, 679-694. 
[link to pdf]

Kelly, D.J., Liu, S., Ge, L., Quinn, P.C., Slater, A.M., Lee, K., Liu, Q., & Pascalis, O. (2007). Cross-race preferences for same-race faces extend beyond the African versus Caucasian contrast in 3-month-old infants. Infancy, 11, 87-95. doi: 10.1207/s15327078in1101_4 
[link to pdf]

Boseovski, J.J., & Lee, K. (2006). Children's Use of Frequency Information for Trait Categorization and Behavioral Prediction. Developmental Psychology, 42, 500-513. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.42.3.500 
[link to pdf]

Ge, L., Wang, Z., McCleery, J.P., & Lee, K. (2006). Activation of face expertise and the inversion effect. Psychological Science, 17, 12-16. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2005.01658.x 
[link to pdf]

McCarthy, A., Lee, K., Itakura, S., & Muir, D.W. (2006). Cultural display rules drive eye gaze during thinking. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 37, 717-722. doi: 10.1177/0022022106292079 
[link to pdf]

Minato, T., Shimada, M., Itakura, S., Lee, K., & Ishiguro, H. (2006). Evaluating the human likeness of an android by comparing gaze behaviours elicited by the android and a person. Advanced Robotics, 20, 1147-1163. doi: 10.1163/156855306778522505 
[link to pdf]

Kelly, D.J., Quinn, P.C., Slater, A. M., Lee, K., Gibson, A., Smith, M., Ge, L., & Pascalis, O. (2005). Three-month-olds, but not newborns, prefer own-race faces. Developmental Science, 8, F31-F36. 
[link to pdf]

Freire, A., Eskritt, M., & Lee, K. (2004). Are eyes windows to a deceiver's soul? Children's use of another's eye gaze cues in a deceptive situation. Developmental Psychology, 40, 1093-1104. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.40.6.1093 
[link to pdf]

Freire, A., Lee, K., Williamson, K.S., Stuart, S.J.E., & Lindsay, R.C.L. (2004). Lineup identification by children: Effects of clothing bias. Law and Human Behavior, 28, 339-354.
[link to pdf]

Symons, L.A., Lee. K., Cedrone, C.C., & Nishimura, M. (2004). What are you looking at?  Acuity for triadic eye gaze. Journal of General Psychology, 131, 451-469.
[link to pdf]

Kisilevsky, B.S., Hains, S.M.J., Lee, K., Xie, X., Huang, H., Ye, H.H., Zhang K., & Wang, Z. (2003). Effects of experience on fetal voice recognition. Psychological Science, 14, 220-224.
[link to pdf]

Muir, D., & Lee, K. (2003). The still-face effect: Methodological issues and new applications. Infancy, 4, 483-491. doi: 10.1207/S15327078IN0404_03 
[link to pdf]

Ge, L., Luo, J. , Nishimura, M., & Lee, K. (2003). Lasting impression of Chairman Mao: Hyper-fidelity of familiar face memory. Perception, 32, 601-614. doi:10.1068/p5022 
[link to pdf]

Freire, A. & Lee, K. (2001). Face recognition in 4 to 7 year-olds: Processing of configural, featural, and paraphernalia information. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology, 80, 347-371. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022096501926396 
[link to pdf]

Freire, A., Lee, K., & Symons, L.A. (2000). The face inversion effect as a deficit in the encoding of configural information: Direct evidence. Perception, 29, 159-170. doi: 10.1068/p3012 
[link to pdf]

Lee, K., & Freire, A. (1999). Effects of face configuration change on shape perception: A new illusion. Perception, 28, 1217-1226. 
[link to pdf]

Kisilevski, B., Haines, S., Lee, K., Muir, D., Xu, F., Fu, G., Zhao, Z., & Yang, M. (1998). The still-face effect in Chinese and Canadian 3- to 6-month-old infants. Developmental Psychology, 34, 629-639.
[link to pdf]

Lee, K., Eskritt, M., Symons, L.A., & Muir, D. (1998). Children's use of triadic eye gaze for mind reading. Developmental Psychology, 34, 525-539. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.34.3.525 
[link to pdf]

Lindsay, R.C.L., Craig, W., Lee, K., Pozzulo, J., Corber, S., Rombough, V., & Smyth, L. (1997). Eyewitness identification procedures when the witness is a child. Law and Human Behavior, 20, 391-404. 

Lindsay, R.C.L., Pozzulo, J., Craig, W., Lee, K., & Corber, S. (1997). Simultaneous lineups, sequential lineups, and showups: Eyewitness identification decisions of adults and children. Law and Human Behavior, 21, 391-404. doi: 10.1023/A:1024807202926
[link to pdf]

Books and Book Chapters

Lee, K., Quinn, P.C., Pascalis, O., & Slater, A. (2013). Development of face processing ability in childhood. In Zelazo, Ph. (Ed.), Oxford handbook of developmental psychology. Oxford University Press.

Lee, K., Quinn, P.C., Pascalis, O., & Slater, A. (2013). Development of face processing abilities. In Zelazo, Ph. (Ed.), Oxford handbook of developmental psychology, Vol. 2 (pp.338-370). Oxford University Press. 

Quinn, P. C., Anzures, G., Lee, K., Pascalis, O., Slater, A. M., & Tanaka, J. W. (2013). On the developmental origins of differential responding to social category information. In M. R. Banaji & S. A. Gelman (Eds.), Navigating the social world: What infants, children, and other species can teach us (pp. 286-291). New York: Oxford University Press.

Lee, K., Anzures, G., & Freire, A. (2011). Cognitive development in adolescence. In A. Slater & G. Bremner (Eds.), An introduction to developmental psychology, 2nd edition (pp. 359-387). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.

Lee, K., Anzures, G., Quinn, P.C., Pascalis, O., & Slater, A. (2011). Development of face processing expertise. In A. J. Calder, G. Rhodes, M. H. Johnson, & J.V. Haxby (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of face perception (pp. 753-778). New York: Oxford University Press.

Slater, A.M., Riddell, P., Quinn, P.C., Pascalis, O., Lee, K., & Kelly, D.J. (2010). Visual perception. In G. Bremner & T. Wachs (Eds.), The Wiley-Blackwell handbook of infant development: Vol. 1. Basic Research (2nd ed., pp. 40-80). Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.

Quinn, P.C., Lee, K., Pascalis, O., & Slater, A. (2010). Perceptual Development: Face Perception. In B. Goldstein (Ed.), Encyclopedia of perception (Vol. 2, pp.742-745). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.


Link, S., & Lee, K. (2009). Psychophysics of face processing. In M. Elliot, S. Antonijevic, S. Berthaud, C. Martyn, B. Bargery, & H. Schmidt (Eds.), Fechner Day 2009 (pages 7-12). Gallimh: Ollsoil na hEireann.

Bartlett, M., Littlewort, G., Vural, E., Lee, K., Cetin, M., Ercil, A., & Movellan, J. (2008). Data mining spontaneous facial behavior with automatic expression coding. In A. Esposito, N.G. Burbakis, N. Avouris, & I. Hatzilygenroudis (Eds.), Verbal and nonverbal features of human-human and human-machine interaction (pp.1-20). Berlin: Springer.

Eskritt, M., & Lee, K. (2007). Young children’s processing of eye gaze information for “mind-reading” purposes. In R. Flom, K. Lee, & D. Muir (Eds.), Ontogeny of gaze processing (pp.243-262). Lawrence Earlbuam.

Flom, R., Lee, K. & Muir, D. (Eds.). (2007). Ontogeny of gaze processing: Its development and significance. Lawrence Earlbuam.

Flom, R., Lee, K., & Muir, D. (2006). Gaze-Following: Its Development and Significance. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

Muir, D., Lee, K., Hains, C., & Hains, S. (2005). Infant perception and production of emotions during face-to-face interactions with live and 'virtual' adults. In J. Nadel & M.  Muir (Eds), Emotional development: Recent research advances (pp. 207-233). New York, NY, US: Oxford University Press.

Freire, A. & Lee. K. (2004). Person recognition by young children: Configural, featural, and paraphernalia processing. In O. Pascalis & A. Slater (Eds.), The development of face processing in infancy and early childhood: current perspectives (pp.191-205). New York: Nova Science Publishers.